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Welcome to the CONFIDENTIAL member resources section - providing you with exclusive access to view and download these documents. The table at the bottom of this page includes links to download some parts of the ISO 4448 draft technical standard. Each is prefaced with an equivalent disclaimer and a request for confidentiality and feedback. 

URF Guides to PMRs:

The 2024 Executive Guide to PMRs is now available for FREE download. We encourage you to invite colleagues to obtain a copy using our download form (to help us track and connect with prospective members).

Members can simply click this image to view/download the PDF >>


URF's 2024 Discovery Guide was published on March 3, 2024. We are offering this book to active members at a 50% discount ($75 value) using PROMO CODE: Member50

Please visit this web page to purchase your copy: 

Our partner organizations (CITM, ICF, Robotics Australia Group) have received a unique code offering a 20-25% discount to their members.

New Members/Start Here:

The Last Block (2020 Whitepaper, Grush)

Of all the automated vehicle scenarios that our cities face in the foreseeable future, the one that is likely to come soonest and to have the most unanticipated impacts is the introduction of small robotic vehicles on the sidewalk.                                                   [View/Download PDF]

Making Room for Robots (2021 URF Whitepaper, Grush)

Cities will need new 2 operating guidelines for curb/kerbsides and footways that will be used by automated taxis and service robots. 

[View/Download PDF]

Smart Cities Policies & Financing: Approaches and Solutions
(2022 Textbook, Coombes, Grush)

Chapter 15: The Changing Management of Sidewalk and Kerb 2000-2025. In J.R. Vacca (Ed.) Published by Elsevier.     [View/Download PDF]

Smart Cities Policies & Financing: Approaches and Solutions
(2022 Textbook Coombes, Grush)

Chapter 16: Standardizing the  Management of Sidewalk and Kerb 2025-2050. In J.R. Vacca (Ed.) Published by Elsevier.     [View/Download PDF]

Personal Delivery Robots (2022 Book Chapter, Grush)

How Will Cities Manage Multiple, Automated Logistics Fleets in Pedestrian Spaces? In 2020, Transport for London developed a set of baseline principles for pedestrian networks. These principles comprise...

The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Urban and Regional Futures published by Springer Nature Switzerland AG.                    [View/Download PDF]

Footway Robots and BIAs 
(2021 Conference Paper, Grush)

Can robots add value to downtown business districts? Retailers have been hit hard by e-commerce, box stores and COVID-19... How can public mobile robots help? (University of Guelph-Humber, 2021 Business Conference).                                                  [View/Download PDF]

Other Publications:

Driverless Endgame (April 2023, 82 page whitepaper, Andrew Miller & Bern Grush)

Policy and Regulation for Automated Driving.  The authors examined the current state of automated driving regulation around the world and make recommendations that policymakers globally can implement to promote innovation in this field, while also ensuring public safety and social acceptance of this new technology.   [View/Download PDF]

Blindspots - Discussion Paper (April 2023, 3 page PDF)

For a human operated vehicle, a blind spot is an area around the vehicle that cannot be directly seen by the driver while at the controls. Analogously, for a teleoperated PMR a blind spot would be any area that cannot be directly seen by the teleoperator, through the sensors on the PMR...   [View/Download PDF]

Member Events/Videos:

Now that the Executive Guide and Discovery Guide are published, Bern is returning his focus to the ISO4448. We have scheduled two member-only meetings (May 28, June 11) and two time zones for these meetings. Please click the link to register and join us if you are able. You can also send comments/input to Bern by email if you can not attend the meeting(s).

Part 6: Journey planning sufficiency for PMRs
May 28th 10am ET Please register: 

May 28th 8pm ET (May 29th morning for Asia/Pacific members) Register:

Part 16: Safety and reliability for PMRs

June 11th 10am ET Please register: 

June 11 8pm ET (June 12th - Asia/Pacific audience)

Please click the images below to view the unlisted/member-only videos from some of our previous ISO4448 Stakeholder review meetings. You can visit our new YouTube Channel to see video recordings of our open events. 

2023-09-26 - URF Stakeholder Meeting #10 - review of draft ISO4448, parts 14 & 15

2023-05-23 - URF Stakeholder Meeting #9 - FINAL review of draft ISO4448, part 1

Drafts of ISO 4448 for comment

Overview of Paradigm

Overview of Paradigm
(2024 Committee Draft)

Presents the background, purpose, context and describes all parts in the ISO 4448 series. URF members can still comment on this version, and those comments will be taken by URF into the continuing approval process.

Last release date:

Data Definitions

Data Definitions

Data definitions and general concepts used throughout TS 4448. Data definitions include units, defaults and ranges where appropriate. Consistency throughout constrains development discipline, and makes integration among systems and across jurisdictions easier.

Planned release date : Pending (Last)

Communications and cybersecurity for public mobile robots

Security, privacy, testing & data: Threat, vulnerability and risk profiles

Communications and cybersecurity issues that are necessary for secure and assured connectivity, location, determination, teleoperation, IoT, recovery, and enforcement override. Also enumerates the maximum privacy issues and guidelines for PMRs, testing guidelines for PMRs, and data capture, use, retention and sharing guidelines for PMRs operating in public spaces.

Planned release date:

Loading/unloading of goods and passengers at the kerb

Loading/unloading of goods and passengers at the kerb (curb)

Describes orchestration procedures to manage loading and unloading of passengers and goods. It orchestrates the endpoints of a trip with an electronic document (LoadPlan) that describes multiple features about “A” and “B”, related to queueing for use of a spot at A or B.  

Planned release date: Pending

Public mobile robot access on human pathways

Public-area mobile robot access on human pathways

Describes trip reservation and queueing for public-area mobile robots in public spaces (footway, bikeway, roadway and crosswalk). This PMR orchestration includes zones and time slots ("TripZone"), start and end points, pathway segments, segment behaviours and start time ("TripPlan"). 

Last release date:

Integrating access to kerb and pathway

Journey planning sufficiency for public-area mobile robots

Specifies capability in terms of the perception field, range and maximum blind spots for journey planning competency. It focuses on the planning range between the full trip (macro plan or path planning) and the immediate next decisions (micro plan or trajectory planning). This intermediate range, called meso planning, ensures that a PMR can perceive well in advance any pending barriers to the completion of the macro plan.

Last release date:

Public mobile robot behaviour on human pathways

Public-area mobile robot behaviour on human pathways

Describes the “rules of the road” for PMRs on public pathways or in public spaces. This includes the full range of behaviours related to sharing space with humans, pets, other robots, and infrastructure. 

Last release date:

Public mobile robot-to-human communication signals

Public-area mobile robot-to-human communication signals

Sounds, light, haptics, and gestural (motional) displays for social communications between PMRs and bystanders; including those with sight/hearing challenges.

Planned release date: Pending

Journey data recorder for public mobile robots

Journey data recorder (JDR) for public-area mobile robots

Journey data includes data for crash evaluation as well as:
• measurement of shyDistance compliance • comparison of shyDistance compliance among fleet operators • social compliance for license renewal • a tool for investigating complaints • a record for event reconstruction • a tool for measuring congestion regarding the granting of TripPlans • a method for testing software.

Planned release date: Pending

Suitability of pathway Infrastructure for public mobile robots
Suitability of pathway Infrastructure for public-area mobile robots

The methods/metrics to determine whether a footway, bikeway, roadway or crosswalk segment is suitable to a particular type or intensity of PMR use.

Planned release date: Pending

Environmental worthiness of public mobile robots

Environmental worthiness of public-area mobile robots

Describes the methods/metrics to determine extreme weather conditions for safe PMR operation (scaled to PMR capability).

Planned release date: Pending

Post-crash procedures for public mobile robots

Post-crash procedures for public-area mobile robots

Describes PMR crash clean-up, description and reporting.

Planned release date: Pending

Mapping maintenance for public mobile robots

Mapping maintenance for public-area mobile robots

Describes mapping parameters such as resolution, update frequency, and error tolerances required for PMR TripZones or TripPlans.

Planned release date: Pending

Personal assistant robots for tasks and goods movement

Personal assistant robots for tasks and goods movement

"PA PMRs" are devices that travel beside or behind collaborative or companion humans in order to assist them with non-passenger mobility or a task. They are typically paired via electronic tethering or image-recognition track-and-tether to a human.

Last release date:

Personal assistant robots for human transport

Passenger-carrying public-area mobile robots

Addresses passenger-carrying public-area mobile robots ("PC PMRs"), such as wheelchairs and micro-personal transit vehicles traveling indoors and outdoors. Includes moving passengers within public facilities such as airports or hospitals.

Last release date:

Safety and reliability for public mobile robots

Safety and reliability for public-area mobile robots

Describes the physical, mechatronic, and operating safety for PMRs. Includes sensors, effectors, fire & chemical, hazardous goods – and more. Safety is organized into three categories: location safety, device safety, and safety for proximate humans

Last release date :

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